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Other eye conditions include:


Best's disease

Best's disease, also known as Best's vitelliform macular dystrophy, is an hereditary form of progressive macular dystrophy. Sight loss can be variable but, like other macular problems, Best's disease threatens central vision in one or both eyes.

Laser surgery following cataract operations

Within a few months, sometimes years, following the cataract operation people can start to have difficulties with their vision again. Sight can become blurred or people can have problems with bright lights and glare.This is due to a thickening of the back of the lens capsule. Medically this is known as posterior lens capsule opacification. Usually this can be dealt with quite simply. Using a laser the doctor can make a hole in part of the capsule so that the light can once again pass directly to the back of the eye. This can improve vision in the vast majority of cases. The procedure is called YAG laser capsulotomy. YAG is the type of laser used for the surgery. For most people there is an immediate improvement in sight within a few minutes of treatment with vision improving again once the dilating drop has worn off, but for some people it can take a few days for the sight to become clear again.

Charles Bonnet syndrome

Charles Bonnet syndrome (or CBS for short) is a term used to describe the situation when people with sight problems start to see things which they know aren't real. Sometimes called visual hallucinations the things people see can take all kinds of forms from simple patterns of straight lines to detailed pictures of people or buildings. These can be enjoyable or sometimes upsetting. Charles Bonnet syndrome affects people with sight difficulties and usually only people who have lost their sight later in life. But it can affect people of any age, usually appearing after a period of worsening sight. The visual hallucinations often stop within a year to eighteen months.

Coat’s disease

Coats’ disease, also known as Exudative Retinitis, is a progressive condition of the retinal capillaries which occurs in children and young adults, usually males. Commencing typically during the first decade of life, it is gradual in progress and affects central vision, usually in only one eye.

Coloboma

A coloboma is a gap in part of the structures of the eye. This gap can occur in a range of areas and be large or small. The most common form of gap is caused by an imperfect closure of a cleft, present in the womb but usually closed by birth date. This gap can occur in the eyelid, iris, lens, choroid or optic disc.

Congenital cataracts

A congenital cataract is an opacity (cloudiness) in the lens of the eye that is present at, or develops shortly after, birth.

Corneal dystrophy

Corneal dystrophies form a group of rare disorders which usually affect both eyes. They may be present at birth, but more frequently develop during adolescence and progress gradually throughout life. Some forms are mild, others severe.

Corneal graft

When a damaged cornea cannot be improved by other treatment, a corneal graft may be performed (corneas are removed from the eyes of people who have died). Corneal grafts may improve sight, alleviate pain and, in the case of ruptured corneas, repair perforations.

Dry eye

Tears serve to lubricate the eye and they are produced around the clock, but when insufficient moisture is produced stinging, burning, scratchiness and other symptoms are experienced and may be referred to as Dry Eye, Keratitis Sicca, Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS) or Xerophthalmia.

Genetic eye disease

Genetic disease occurs when the DNA in a gene is faulty, and gives rise to a protein which does not work properly. Because the same protein may be used in many different tissues of the body, a single genetic disease may give rise to a number of disabilities, for example blindness and deafness. There are many different types of genetic eye disease and collectively they are the commonest cause of sight loss in children and young people.

Retinitis pigmentosa is the most well known genetic eye disease. Many cases of severe eye disease in children such as microphthalmos (small eye), cataract, glaucoma and retinoblastoma (an eye tumour in childhood) can be caused by genetic defects. Many genetic diseases which affect several body systems also affect the eye, such as Marfan's syndrome, neurofibromatosis. It is increasingly recognised that many adult eye diseases such as cataract, glaucoma and diabetes are modified by a person's genetic constitution.

Hemianopsia

Hemianopsia, sometimes called Hemianopia, is blindness in one half of the visual field. This loss can be caused by a variety of medical conditions, of which stroke is among the most commonly experienced.

High degree myopia

Short-sightedness, or myopia, is a vision problem resulting from excessively long growth of the eye-ball, or a steeply curved cornea. High degree myopia (sometimes known as pathological myopia or degenerative myopia) is a chronic, degenerative condition which can create problems because of its association with degenerative changes at the back of the eye.

Macular dystrophy

Macular Dystrophy is an hereditary condition in which there is a degeneration of the retinal receptors in the region of the macula. There are separately identified macular dystrophies of which Best's Disease, Stargardt's Macular Dystrophy and Bulls Eye Maculopathy are the most common. They tend to come on earlier in life and cause a reduction in central vision.

Macular Hole

A macular hole is a small hole in the macula which is in the centre of the retina. Macular holes usually only affect one eye, though there is a 10 per cent, one in ten, chance that the other eye will eventually be affected.

Posterior vitreous detachment

Posterior Vitreous Detachment (PVD) is a common condition which occurs in about 75 per cent of people over the age of 65. As people get older the vitreous, a jelly-like substance inside the eye changes.

Retinal detachment

Retinal detachments often develop in eyes with retinas weakened by a hole or tear. This allows fluid to seep underneath, weakening the attachment so that the retina becomes detached. When detached, the retina cannot compose a clear picture from the incoming rays and vision becomes blurred and dim.

Retinopathy of prematurity

If an infant is born prematurely, with the retinal blood vessel development incomplete, problems occur. Abnormal blood vessels may develop which can subsequently lead to bleeding and scar tissue formation. This may then stretch the retina pulling it out of position. Visual loss may result.

Stargardt’s macular dystrophy

Stargardt's Macular Dystrophy is an inherited condition that affects the macula. Conditions involving the macula affect central vision. Although there may be considerable sight loss, in some cases to levels where registration would be offered, total loss of sight is rare.

Temporal arteritis or giant cell arteritis

Giant Cell Arteritis, Temporal Arteritis and Cranial Arteritis are terms which can be used when diagnosing an inflammatory disease affecting the medium-sized arteries, more specifically the many arteries which supply the head and eyes. Arteritis is a condition which can cause sudden loss of sight in one eye. Arteritis may be generalised or confined to one area. When the condition is generalised, the term Giant Cell Arteritis is more likely to be used, but when the effects are limited to the arteries in the scalp, it is more likely that the terms Temporal or Cranial Arteritis will be used.

Thyroid eye disease

Thyroid Eye Disease is also known as TED, Dysthyroid Ophthalmopathy, Basedow's Disease, Endocrine Exophthalmos or Ephthalmopathy, Graves' Disease, Thyrotoxic or Thyrotrophic Exophthalmos. The thyroid gland lies in the neck in front of the windpipe and helps to maintain normal body metabolism. Association between disease of the thyroid gland and exophthalmos, an abnormal protrusion or bulging forward of the eye, has been recognized for over a century but although easily recognised the pathology is still unclear.

Uveitis

If we think of the eye as a hollow, fluid-filled, 3-layered ball, then the outer layer is the sclera, a tough coat, the innermost is the retina, the thin light-gathering layer, and the middle layer is the Uvea. The Uvea is made up of the iris, the ciliary body and the choroid. When any part of the uvea becomes inflamed then it is called Uveitis. There are many different types of Uveitis. This is because: The Uvea is made up of different parts. So if the iris is affected, the condition and its treatment could be totally different to when the choroid is affected. The inflammation in the Uvea very often affects other parts of the eye such as the retina and so a variety of other problems can be present to complicate the picture. Next there are a large number of medical conditions where Uveitis is a feature amongst the other symptoms of the disease. e.g. Behcet’s Disease, Sarcoidosis and Toxoplasmosis, to name just three of them.


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